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Numerical Methods for Phase Retrieval
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Eliyahu Osherovich, Ph.D. Thesis Seminar
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Wednesday, 30.11.2011, 14:00
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Taub 601
In this work we consider the problem of the reconstruction of a signal from the magnitude of its Fourier transform, also known as phase retrieval. The problem arises in many areas of astronomy, crystallography, optics, and coherent diffraction imaging (CDI). Our main goal is to develop an efficient reconstruction method based on continuous optimization techniques. Unlike current reconstruction methods, which are based on alternating projections, our approach leads to a much faster and more robust method. However, all previous attempts to employ continuous optimization methods, such as Newton-type algorithms, to the phase retrieval problem failed. In this work we provide an explanation for this failure and based on this explanation we devise a sufficient condition that allows development of new reconstruction methods---approximately known Fourier phase. We demonstrate that a rough (up to $\pi/2$ radians) Fourier phase estimate practically guarantees successful reconstruction by any reasonable method. We also present a new reconstruction method whose reconstruction time is orders of magnitude faster than that of the current method-of-choice in phase retrieval---Hybrid Input-Output (HIO). Moreover, our method is capable of successful reconstruction even in the situations where HIO is known to fail. We also extended our method to other applications: Fourier domain holography, and interferometry. Additionally we(*) developed a new sparsity-based method for sub-wavelength CDI. Using this method we demonstrated experimental resolution exceeding several times the physical limit imposed by the diffraction light properties (so called diffraction limit). (*) The work on sub-wavelength CDI was done in collaboration with Prof. M. Segev's group from the Technion Physics Department, Solid State Institute.
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