# Theory Seminar: Sparse Fault-Tolerant BFS Trees

- Speaker:
- Merav Parter (Weizmann Institute of Science)
- Date:
- Wednesday, 6.11.2013, 12:30
- Place:
- Taub 201

We addresses the problem of designing a sparse {\em fault-tolerant} BFS tree, or {\em FT-BFS tree} for short, namely, a sparse subgraph $T$ of the given network $G$ such that subsequent to the failure of a single edge or vertex, the surviving part $T'$ of $T$ still contains a BFS spanning tree for (the surviving part of) $G$. Our main results are as follows. We present an algorithm that for every $n$-vertex graph $G$ and source node $s$ constructs a (single edge failure) FT-BFS tree rooted at $s$ with $O(n \cdot \min\{Depth(s), \sqrt{n}\})$ edges, where $Depth(s)$ is the depth of the BFS tree rooted at $s$. This result is complemented by a matching lower bound, showing that there exist $n$-vertex graphs with a source node $s$ for which any edge (or vertex) FT-BFS tree rooted at $s$ has $\Omega(n^{3/2})$ edges. We then consider {\em fault-tolerant multi-source BFS trees}, or {\em FT-MBFS trees} for short, aiming to provide (following a failure) a BFS tree rooted at each source $s\in S$ for some subset of sources $S\subseteq V$. Again, tight bounds are provided, showing that there exists a poly-time algorithm that for every $n$-vertex graph and source set $S \subseteq V$ of size $\sigma$ constructs a (single failure) FT-MBFS tree $T^*(S)$ from each source $s_i \in S$, with $O(\sqrt{\sigma} \cdot n^{3/2})$ edges, and on the other hand there exist $n$-vertex graphs with source sets $S \subseteq V$ of cardinality $\sigma$, on which any FT-MBFS tree from $S$ has $\Omega(\sqrt{\sigma}\cdot n^{3/2})$ edges. Finally, we propose an $O(\log n)$ approximation algorithm for constructing FT-BFS and FT-MBFS structures. The latter is complemented by a hardness result stating that there exists no $\Omega(\log n)$ approximation algorithm for these problems under standard complexity assumptions.

Joint work with David Peleg.