Technical Report CIS9611

Title: Control of a Camera for Active Vision: Foveal Vision, SMooth Tracking and Saccade
Authors: H. Rotstein and E. Rivlin
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Abstract: Several characteristics of human oculomotor systems have been suggested to be also useful for active vision mechanisms. Among others, foveal vision and a tracking scheme based on two different modes, called {\em smooth pursuit} and {\em saccade} have often been postulated or implemented in a more or less ad-hoc manner. The purpose of this paper is to formulate a setup in which the benefit of implementing these schemes can be evaluated in a systematic manner, based on control considerations but incorporating image processing constraints. First, the advantage of using foveal vision is evaluated by computing the size of the foveal window which will allow tracking of the largest possible class of signals. By using linear optial control theory, this problem can be formulated as a one-variable maximization. Second, foveal vision leads naturally to smooth pursuit, defined as the performance that can be achieved by the controller resulting in the optimal size of the foveal window.This controller is relatively simple (i.e., linear, time-invariant) as is to be expected for this control loop. Finally, when smooth pursuit fails one is forced to perform a corrective action which aims at re-centering the target on the fovea so that the smooth pursuit controller can continue to operate. Recent results in linear optimal control, which were partially developed motivated by the current problem, provide the necessary tools for addressing this challenging problem in a systematic manner.
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